What we will ride in the future
Future vehicles, if the ban on gasoline and diesel fuel
How you think, how many years in developed countries will be sold to petrol or diesel vehicles? I think that in the next 100 years, it is not possible? Do you think that in the next 30-50 years, oil will remain the main fuel in the world? Wrong. In fact, we stand on the threshold of an incredible future. In fact, the era of vehicles running on gasoline and diesel fuel is coming to an end. The fact that the whole world came together for the improvement of the ecology of the planet. We are therefore waiting for the inevitable disappearance of transport that run on traditional energy sources.
It is expected that in the next 10-15 years many European countries to impose a total ban on the sale of vehicles equipped with petrol and diesel engines. Even USA is planning 20-30 years, in fact, completely switch to cars that run on alternative energy sources.
So there is a high probability that the usual us vehicles with internal combustion engines actually started its way to its disappearance. I think that our country is always like touches in the least. You are wrong.
Today, our Government is preparing the ground for the development of the country’s vehicles running on petrol and diesel. fuel.
Fortunately for fans of the traditional car era petrol and diesel engines has not yet passed. So let’s analyze on what cars we will drive, say, 20-30 years?
Actually can predict the future is not a grateful thing. Especially with regard to high technology. But nevertheless, make your forecast for the development of the automotive industry. Because in order to know which vehicles will be the main sources of transportation in the next 20 years, it is necessary to recall the history of the automotive industry to assess the chances of those technologies that have been invented over the last hundred years.
You must agree, if the world will begin to ban the use of internal combustion engines, the automakers will be forced to urgently use the new technologies and perhaps to remember old ones.
What drives the car?
We know from school that for movement of any object requires energy and strength. So according to the laws of physics, to movement of the vehicle, the necessary mechanical energy. For more than a hundred years ago was invented the internal combustion engine that converts combustion energy into mechanical energy. In the end she drives the car.
Thanks to the fuel system of an internal combustion engine burns gasoline or diesel fuel, in order to obtain after the ignition of the fuel energy, which is transmitted to the wheels.
More than 100 years ago the car industry invented the electric motor, which is powered by clean energy – electricity. Unlike gasoline, electricity is not necessary in some way to. It usually accumulates in the accumulator battery installed in the car. In the end, the electric motor receives the constant electric energy, which is converted into mechanical force that drives the car.
Steam vehicles and steam engine
The world’s first steam engine was invented by Denis Papen in 1690 (17th century). This power unit was fitted with one cylinder with a piston. The piston was raised by steam. Down the piston under the action of atmospheric pressure after the condensation of exhaust steam.
In the end, the energy of steam is transformed into mechanical.
But a major revolution in steam engines made by James watt, who created an improved steam engine with an insulated chamber. Unfortunately, to create a complete car Watto failed, due to lack of funds.
Then Nicolas-Joseph Konya has created the world’s first moving vehicle into mechanical energy received from the formation of steam. His invention was a military carriage (“fardier à vapeur” – steam cart), which was established for the transport of artillery to army aviation. In its construction were used advanced steam engine and boiler installed in the forward part of the vehicle.
Unfortunately, the weight of the carts were huge, making it practically not manageable. During the tests, the designers realized that the wagon is dangerous and often leads to accidents. In the end, the project ceased to exist.
The first steam engine in Russia was established in 1763 Polzunova, which was used for a blower of the bellows to the Barnaul plants. Then the development of steam engines was continued by the famous Ivan Kulibin, who built many steam engines.
The use of steam engines lasted until the early 20th century.
The main disadvantage of steam engines is the efficiency, which is to make the above required complexity of the design of the steam engine, which led to an increase in its weight. In the end, the vehicle became heavier, which influenced the power and dynamism of transport.
In the end, the engineers were forced to complicate the design to increase steam engine efficiency, which in turn again led to an increase in the mass of the structure. In General, it was a vicious circle that confirmed that the steam engine is not perfect and in the future it was a dead end.
Eventually in the early 20th century steam engines began to gradually disappear, as they have been superseded by vehicles with internal combustion engines running on gasoline.
Cars with internal combustion engines
In 1863, Nikolaus August Otto created the atmospheric two-stroke internal combustion engine. The engine had an efficiency of around 15 percent. The ignition was carried out with an open flame.
In 1886 Karl Benz created the first car in the world with the internal combustion engine, in which its design was based on the motor Augusta Otto. The world’s first car that runs on gasoline.
In 1899, the factory “Ludwig Nobel” built in Russia, the world’s first diesel car that runs on diesel fuel.
Since the internal combustion engine operating on liquid fuel, has become essential in the global automotive industry and remains so to this day.
The amazing thing is that electric cars came into the world almost 50 years before the appearance of vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines.
It is noteworthy that in the early 20th century, electric vehicles have enjoyed immense popularity, and noticeably won vehicles with gasoline or diesel powertrains.
Unlike gasoline or diesel, electric cars were virtually silent, allowing the driver and passengers to get maximum comfort during the trip.
Unfortunately, all these pluses the first of electric cars, thwarted by one major drawback – a small reserve.
Recall that the first electric car appeared in 1841, who had a small reserve on one battery (about 20 km).
Unfortunately, more than 50 years, the engineers have not figured out how to increase the cruising range of electric cars. For example, by 1920 the range of electric cars amounted to an average of only 50 kilometers.
In addition, there was the difficulty of recharging batteries in normal conditions. As a result gradually by 1930 cars with internal combustion engines virtually destroyed the electric vehicle. This, of course, contributed to the development of gasoline and diesel engines, cheap fuel costs and the development of networks of stations around the world.
But recently, the industry has again remembered about this technology and the beginning of rapid development of electric transport, which maybe soon, after more than 100 years to become the main mode of transport on the planet.
However, as more than 100 years ago, the industry faces the same challenges in creating electric cars. The main problem is range. At the moment most electric cars are used in its design Li-ion-battery. The main disadvantage of this type of battery is its weight and long duration of charging when not sufficiently large supply of electricity to power the electric motor.
But the real breakthrough was provided by the company Tesla, which has created the world’s first serial passenger car (Tesla Model S) with a large reserve. Though it was created by a large and heavy battery which is recharged for a very long time. But thanks to the engineers managed to increase the range of up to 400 kilometers.
Currently in many countries worldwide (mainly in USA) company Tesla is developing its own network of electric filling stations that have installed equipment that allows you to charge your electric vehicle on average 20-30 minutes (charge to half the battery capacity). So maybe due to the spread of electric filling stations worldwide in the coming years, we expect demand for electric vehicles will only increase.
Unfortunately, faster to charge a huge battery of electric vehicles is currently not possible. Because it requires the powerful charger in the world does not yet exist. But technology continues to develop rapidly and maybe soon we are waiting for a breakthrough in the field of conservation of electrical energy. In this case, the growing popularity of electric cars will be stunning.
Atomic Ford Nucleon
Yes, in the history of mankind was such an ambitious project.
In 1958 the American company Ford has developed a concept car with a real nuclear reactor. It was expected that on a single charge radioactive substances the car could travel up to 8000 kilometres.
In fact, the nuclear reactor, which is planned to be installed on the Ford Nucleon was a reduced copy of the nuclear reactors used in military submarines.
As the fuel planned to use uranium fission to heat a steam generator that would convert the heated water into steam. Then steam under pressure would do to the turbines, which would turn would drive the car.
Unfortunately, this ambitious project remained a futuristic concept and is unlikely to ever return to Autoworld.
After the accident in Chernobyl and Fukushima, nuclear energy is considered the most dangerous in the world. So in the next 100-150 years, this kind of energy is unlikely to come in the automotive industry.
Sambegou vehicle movement
In 1752 in Saint-Petersburg Leonty Shamshurenkov presented to the public a self-propelled carriage which is moved due to rotation of the pedals. His vehicle was equipped with foot pedals, which by means of a chain drive rotates the wheel camouglage vehicle.
Due to the design, the power expended on the rotation of pedals increased, and the wheels of the equipment will have sufficient energy for development is not a low speed.
Surprisingly, this vehicle is still available in the automotive industry. Even in the world there are various competitions that are held on such zambelich cars. An example of this the recent world speed record on sambella the vehicle (a speed of just over 130 km/h).
What are hydrogen cars? This vehicle, which as fuel uses hydrogen.
The first internal combustion engine running on hydrogen created Francois Isaac de Rivaz in 1806.
Unfortunately, the use of hydrogen fuel as an alternative to gasoline is not very efficient. The fact that hydrogen quickly displays the internal parts of the engine out of action, engaging with components of the engine interact and damaging parts of the power unit in the short term. Also, due to the volatility of hydrogen, the fuel can enter the exhaust system, leading to its ignition.
So the use of hydrogen as alternative to petrol and diesel fuel the automotive industry had to be abandoned. But recently things have changed…
In the modern world, hydrogen fuel beginning to be used as energy source to power electric batteries. In the end, it allowed the automakers to begin developing electric cars powered from the traction motor. We give not just writing about hydrogen cars, BMW and Toyota, which in the future will become popular around the world.
The system of modern hydrogen-powered car is simple – the hydrogen reacting with oxygen, recharges the battery that powers the electric motor of the machine. As a decay product of hydrogen, the car emits pure water.
Gas cars with turbine engines
In the mid-20th century, some automotive companies were engaged in development of gas turbine engines. What kind of powertrain?
The meaning of gas turbine engines is to use the energy of heated gas that compress under pressure. In the end, this pressure turns the blades of the turbine. It is here that the pressure energy of gas is converted to mechanical, which in turn may move any vehicle.
The amazing thing is that vehicles equipped with turbine engines that may operate virtually on any video combustible fuel. The main thing that the combustion of fuel formed gas.
For example, car is the gas power unit can as fuel to use wood, coal, alcohol, natural gas, fuel oil, and many other sources of energy.
Unfortunately, for whatever reason, few brands have been mining in this area. In the end, at the moment this kind of engines are used on modern cars. And this, despite the fact that gas turbine engines have a greater power compared to traditional power units internal combustion engines.
Cars that run on compressed air
I think that the cars are moving on the compressed air is science fiction? Actually no. Such a vehicle is a reality. For example, in the late 19th century in France was created by the tram, which worked on compressed air. It is noteworthy that this streetcar was working on route until 1914.
Typically, in vehicles with compressed air cylinders are used, in which air is injected under pressure. Then air under pressure is supplied to the pneumatic motor, which transmits torque to the wheels.
At the moment the motor is not actually used in the automotive industry. But, nevertheless, they are used in other industries. For example, the pneumatic actuators are equipped with various hydraulic systems which require a large compression force at a relatively low speed travel hydraulics.
I wonder whether this technology the odds in the automotive industry? Of course. Perhaps in the future car companies will start mass apply compressed air cylinders and compressed air motors. Though perhaps not in its pure form, but rather as hybrid systems, for example, is paired with a conventional internal-combustion engines or electric motors.
For example, recently the company Peugeot has announced that it has created the world’s first hybrid system, which uses an internal combustion engine paired with a motor that runs on compressed air.
According to engineers, this design help the engine to transfer torque to the transmission, through the use of energy of compressed air.
In principle the technology of this hybrid is the same as that used in the hybrid engine-electric motor. Only instead of electricity, the car uses the energy of compressed air.
Cars with rotary engines
In the late 1950-ies Walter Freud and Felix Wankel developed a reliable scheme of the rotary engine. Unlike the internal combustion engine, the rotary engine uses instead of pistons, a rotor which performs a rotational motion.
As a result of rotation of the shaft energy produced by combustion of fuel is transformed into mechanical. Thanks to the use of a rotor which revolves just the design of the rotary motor is a lot easier of an internal combustion engine where the reciprocating movements of the piston require a sophisticated crank mechanism.
It should be noted that rotary motors with the same volume of bigger more powerful internal combustion engines, and also have a wide speed range of the powertrain. The main disadvantage of the rotary engine is its sustainability, which is very difficult to improve without increasing the production cost of the power unit.
Latest model of Mazda’s rotary engine: RX-8
In addition, the rotary engine is less maintainable, compared to internal combustion engines, as well as costly to repair (if possible).
This was the reason for the almost complete disappearance of rotary motors from the automotive industry.
Forecast: the Future of the automotive world
Let’s summarize. As you can see in the automotive industry for more than 100 years of history has been invented many technologies to create cars. But, unfortunately, all the vehicles created to the present day, is not perfect in its design in the first place are not environmentally friendly.
Predicting the future of the automotive world, already today it is possible to make an unambiguous conclusion that within 20-30 years we will see rapid growth of electric (or hydrogen) cars, which will every year become more technologically complicated.
Thanks to the electronic innovation, it’s also safe to say that in 20-30 years the cars will become more smarter and harder. So it is expected that by 2030 the number of cars in the world equipped with a full autopilot will be around 20-35 percent.
So we’ll have a great future that could not imagine even the most daring futurists and science fiction writers.