What does it mean? A simple guide to automotive terms
Guide to automotive terms automotive
You are confused automobile jargon? No problem. Our online edition 1GAI.RU offers a simple guide and explanation of many automotive terms that are in recent years often use car company.
Any of you certainly must be agreed that all existing cars in the world challenging from a technological point of view. With it hardly someone will argue. In the automotive industry at the moment there are thousands of technologies and electronic systems that the car companies come up with strange names, many of which by name have no meaning. So even a connoisseur of modern cars can easily get lost in new technologies and systems. We offer you the most common technology, the names of which you have heard. But not always many of us understand what actually the meaning of some of the names of new technologies in the automotive industry. We will try to explain more simply.
The abbreviation CVT means continuously variable transmission, which is also known as the CVT. The principle of operation of the transmission based on the belt drive transmission of the torque (about the same as on the bike). Using belts and pulleys variator theoretically provides an infinite number of gear ratios. As a result, the engine paired with a CVT transmission always operates at the optimum speed (kept the engine speed) in contrast to the work with a manual or traditional automatic transmission when switching that the engine speed is constantly falling. The variator allows to make the car more economical.
The variable valve timing
This technology in the automotive industry is often abbreviated as VVT. All internal combustion engines have valves that open and close to deliver fuel to the combustion chamber, and then to prevent the admission of the exhaust gases back, directing them into the exhaust system. Therefore, in the design of the engine there are intake and exhaust valve. In engines without VVT system opening and closing of the valve takes place synchronously and at the same time. Also this process takes a pretty long time, which affects useless consumption of fuel and energy due to prolonged open time of the valves.
With system of change of phases of gas distribution VVT the time of opening and closing of the valves can vary to optimize power and efficiency. There is also a double system of variable valve timing which means that the electronic control valves used for both the inlet and exhaust valves of the engine.
This brand name technology uses the car company Fiat. Most internal combustion engines for opening and closing the intake and exhaust valves using the camshaft.
The engine with technology MultiAir valve are activated by pressurized oil whose flow is controlled by an electric solenoid. Also, this system is equipped with variable valve timing. According to engineers of the Fiat MultiAir system improves combustion efficiency and allows to increase the capacity of the machine.
Timing chain and timing belt
The camshafts, which open and close exhaust valve is connected with the crankshaft for synchronizing the operation of the engine with a metal timing chain or belt timing. The rotary motion of the crankshaft is transmitted via a chain or belt on the camshafts. Timing belts are usually made of reinforced rubber or polymer. Belts much easier than the chain. As a result, the engines timing belt is quieter. But unfortunately the timing belts wear out quickly and can break, often resulting in serious engine damage. So, if your engine uses the timing belt must be replaced after a certain time interval or after a certain mileage. As a rule user guide for auto is an indication of how often you need to replace the timing belt. Unfortunately, you quickly see the degree of wear of the timing belt, you can not, as it is hidden by the special cap in the engine.
The timing chain in the car more durable, but the operation of the engine with the chain louder.
Internal combustion engines operate as a result of ignition in the combustion chamber fuel-air mixture. Fuel mixed with oxygen is ignited by the spark plugs. In the combustion of fuel in the engine produces energy which begins to rotate the crankshaft, the torque which is further transmitted to gear box and then to the wheels. As we have said, the fuel ignites in the combustion chamber. The majority of engines in the auto world have the usual cylindrical shape of the combustion chamber. But, for example, Chrysler invented the engines with hemispherical shapes of the combustion chambers of fuel. This technology has a short name Hemi. The engines with the Hemi technology is more efficient and more powerful at the expense of optimum ignition of the fuel in hemispherical combustion chambers.
The Pentastar Engine V6
The company uses the name Chrysler “Pentastar” for his family of V6 engines. This name does not mean some special and unique technology. In fact it is the name of six-cylinder engines was named after the old Chrysler logo, which was previously presented in the form of a five-pointed star. So the Pentastar V6 engines, nothing more than just a historical name of the old logo of the Chrysler brand.
Symmetrical all-wheel drive All-Wheel Drive (AWD)
For example, the company Subaru uses the term All-Wheel Drive (AWD) to indicate their cars. Many people mistakenly believe that the AWD system means that torque is distributed equally to all four wheels. But it’s not. In fact, the symmetrical all-wheel drive All-Wheel Drive (AWD) Subaru (unlike other car brands) means that the entire layout (engine, transmission, transfer case, driveshaft and rear differential) of the car laid out symmetrically on either side of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. This arrangement of components allows the car to achieve better weight balance, which primarily affects the handling.
SH-AWD is a proprietary term of the company Acura. The full name of the technology Super Handling All-Wheel Drive. This modernized system of full drive AWD, which not only regulates the amount of torque distributed between the front and rear wheels, but also can separately regulate the transmission of torque coming on the left rear or right rear wheel. It is necessary to improve cornering and better handling of the machine.
Gearbox with double clutch
In the automotive industry automobile company designate transmission with double clutch different names, so how in the world does not exist a common standard of marking of such transmissions. For example, a gearbox with double clutch may be in the form of abbreviations DSG, DCT. These transmissions are equipped with two clutches, one of which is working with even numbers of gears and the other with odd. Once turned on one transmission control unit transmission pre-selects the next gear, holding it at the ready. Once the engine speed reaches the desired value, the switching to another transmission will occur almost immediately. This provides a smoother operation and quick gear box, which increases the dynamics of the car during acceleration, and reduces fuel consumption.
Some automatic transmissions, as well as some CVTs (CTV) is equipped with manual mode shifter. This mode allows the driver to independently shift gears, instead of waiting until it do for him to box on their own. Depending on the brand and model manufacturers differently implement the option of manual gear shift in automatic transmissions. There are transmission, where the switching speeds you need to use all the usual gear shift knob. But there are cars that are equipped with paddles, with which the driver without removing his hands from the steering wheel may shift gears in the transmission.
Some transmissions are equipped with a system that can enforce the optimal speed, if the driver correctly choose a particular gear, or shift too late. Usually this occurs when the engine speed becomes large.
Hill Start Assist
Hill Start Assist is a modern electronic system of the help at descent or climb, which are equipped with many modern cars. The point of this work is simple. As soon as the car stops on descent or when climbing, the electronics automatically holds the brake for a few seconds, giving the driver time to move your foot from the gas pedal or brake. Basically, this system is common on cars equipped with manual transmission. But also help system during the descent found on vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission. For example, we are talking about the system of care movement during the descent from the mountain. This system works on the same principle as cruise control. The only difference is that when the help system during the descent the car is moving at a slow speed. For example, such a system is often installed on off-road vehicles, allowing them to go slowly down the hill without using the brake pedal.
This is the brand name of the infotainment system, a navigation system, Mercedes-Benz. It is also the name of a patented system management functions of the infotainment system.
This is the brand name of the system control screen infotainment system from BMW. Like the Mercedes system Comand, iDrive uses a special joystick and buttons to operate the screen. A similar interface also have Audi, in which the control feature of the infotainment system is indicated by the abbreviation MMI (Multi Media Interface). In cars Cadillac such a system is called the Cadillac CUE (Cadillac User Experience). The Chevrolet control the infotainment system, called Chevrolet MyLink.
In the automotive industry in recent years has been the proliferation of technology – “Cylinder Deactivation”, which means the cylinder deactivation system of the engine. A single notation of this technology in the auto world no. But most often such a system is indicated by the abbreviations MDS, AFM (Active Fuel Management), and COD (Cylinder-on-Demand).
Basically, the cylinder deactivation system is installed on V6 and V8 engines. The point of the system to block the flow of air into the individual cylinders of the engine (usually the intake of oxygen is blocked in half of the cylinders of the engine). Typically, this process is activated in the moment when the car doesn’t need full power. For example, when driving with constant speed on the highway. Despite the fact that the oxygen ceases to flow into the cylinder, it continues to move, but the ignition of the fuel occurs so that the oxygen in the combustion chamber also ceases to flow fuel as the valve in that cylinder no longer open until the car won’t need more power.
This is a very useful feature for significant fuel savings on powerful cars.
If you see a marking engine in the form of abbreviations GDI, it means that the power unit is equipped by system of direct injection of fuel. In conventional engines the fuel mixture is injected into the intake manifold, where subsequently the mixture sucked into the combustion chamber, in that moment, when you open the intake valve of the engine. Then fuel mixture is ignited by the spark plug. In GDI engines the intake valve sucks in only oxygen when the fuel mixture is directly injected into the combustion chamber directly. In fact, the engines with direct injection are not cheaper than conventional motors and not much, only a little more powerful. But the engines equipped with system of direct fuel injection (GDI) allows to design a new generation of engines with other non-traditional technologies that helps to create a modern and efficient powertrains. The only drawback of GDI engines is the cost of design and production, which is much more expensive compared to conventional powertrains.
TDI is an acronym for diesel engines with turbocharging and direct fuel injection. This is the name used by Volkswagen and Audi. Diesel engines have no spark plugs. Instead of spark ignition of fuel occurs due to heat generated during compression is coming into the combustion chamber of oxygen. Turbocharging increases the air pressure in each cylinder, which allows the powertrain to produce more power.
Stability system (StabiliTrak)
StabiliTrak uses the name of the company General Motors for its vehicles equipped with electronic stability control. A single global standard to denote this system does not exist. All the manufacturers indicate the stability control system in different ways. For example, in cars Acura this is a system called VSA (Vehicle Stability Assist). In Infiniti cars the stability control system is designated as VDC (Vehicle Dynamic Control). Mercedes-Benz is file system the abbreviation ESP (Electronic Stability Program).
Currently, in many countries this system is obligatory for installation on a new car.
The stability control system is equipped with sensors that determine the moment when the machine begins to move in the opposite from that side which is turned to the steering wheel. As soon as the electronics detects the discrepancy between the rate of movement of the machine with the side where the steering wheel is rotated, the braking system begins to slow down individual wheels or reduce engine speed to regain control of the movement (back grip). This allows the electronics to prevent skidding of the machine in the event of loss of traction. For example, if the skid started because of the inept actions of the driver or due to slippery roads.
This designation for their motors exclusively uses the Ford company. The name is indicated only EcoBoost turbocharged engines. As a rule these are small-volume turbo engines (for example, the three-cylinder motors), equipped with a turbocharger. The meaning of these low-powered motors is that in the majority of the time drivers don’t need large capacity power units. So the motors can have a small number of cylinders. But sometimes the power is still needed. For this, engines with a small number of cylinders are equipped with turbines, which allow you to develop the necessary power. The use of a small engine with a small number of cylinders allows to achieve great fuel economy. That is why the three-cylinder Ford engines, the company decided to designate as the EcoBoost.
This abbreviation is used by the company Audi, indicating their turbo engines with direct injection system.
The start-stop system (Start-Stop)
The vehicle is equipped with start-stop system with the stops (e.g. at traffic lights) after some time when idle automatically shut off the engine to save fuel. When turned off only stops the motor, while everything else continues to work (climate control, audio system, lights, etc.). In the end the vehicle when stationary does not burn fuel and does not emits any harmful emissions. But as soon as you take your foot off the brake or clutch pedal to start the start-stop system automatically starts the engine. Initially this system was equipped with only hybrid cars. They way the system has always worked by default. That is to disable the start-stop system-it is impossible. But now this system is available on many conventional vehicles. And in most of them the system stop-start can be forced off.
Adaptive (or active) cruise control (ACC)
On some modern cars in our days the automobile companies began to install a new generation system cruise control (ACC). When you activate the adaptive cruise control system using radar or external camera to measure the distance from the vehicle in front, if necessary, automatically slows or accelerates the car. This allows the system to automatically maintain a certain safe distance from other vehicles to maintain speed. Some of the more complex high-tech systems can automatically keep the desired distance at low speeds, as well as fully automatically stop the car if necessary, and then automatically start to move the car.
Hybrid fuel (flexible fuel – Flex Fuel)
Cars that can run on ethanol or a hybrid fuel (a mixture of ethanol and gasoline) as a rule are indicated by an icon that says “Flex Fuel”. This type of fuel more harmless to the environment, but also reduces the efficiency of the vehicle. Unfortunately ethanol is corrosive to fuel system. In the end, in order to help your machine run on ethanol requires a special fuel pump of a high pressure and a special fuel injector that is able to withstand high fuel pressure. Most modern engines can without any special refinement to operate on hybrid fuel (a standard + gasoline). Typically, this requires the ratio of gasoline with ethanol had a ratio of no more than 85:15 (85 percent gasoline and 15 percent ethanol). Currently, many filling stations Europe 75 percent of the fuel contains ethanol, which is a real alternative source of energy.